Brazil is committed to the protection of the global climate
system to present and future generations. Therefore, it acts multilaterally to strengthen the international climate change regime, the basis for international cooperation in this area. The regime is based on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and in force since 1994; and on the Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997, in force since 2005. The adoption of the Paris Agreement, in 2015, inaugurated a new phase of the multilateral regime, marked by greater ambition to face the challenge of climate change worldwide.
One of the fundamental principles of the UNFCCC is the "common but differentiated responsibilities", whereby developed countries, due to their historical and current responsibilities for global warming and their greater financial and technological capability, should take the lead in the implementation of more ambitious targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and provide financial and technological aid to developing countries. Developing countries, in turn, should contribute to address global warming in a manner compatible with the imperative of economic social growth, whose priority for developing countries is recognized by the Framework Convention.
The Kyoto Protocol complemented the UNFCCC by establishing legally binding quantitative targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions for developed countries. Its strict rules for monitoring, reporting and verifying emissions and removing greenhouse gases provide a basis of comparison between the efforts of developed countries and the environmental integrity of findings. The Kyoto Protocol established two commitment periods: 2008 to 2012 and 2013 to 2020.
In 2015, the adoption of the Paris Agreement concluded the negotiating mandate of the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action. The Paris Agreement, which should be implemented from 2020, strengthens the set of obligations assumed under the Framework Convention, consolidating its central role and the respect to its principles and rules. The Agreement also establishes new obligations of conduct by all Parties, contributing to effectively increase the general ambition, in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication efforts.
The multilateral negotiations under the UNFCCC are subsidized by the scientific work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main forum for negotiations of the regime is the Conference of Parties (COP), which takes place annually, in conjunction with the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP). Ongoing international negotiations focus on the adoption of decisions and regulations to the implementation of the Paris Agreement.
Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)
The Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) is the main communication instrument of the individual commitments assumed by the Parties on the Paris Agreement under the UNFCCC. In addition to actions to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, the NDCs also contain elements of adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change and means of implementation (financing, technology transfer and training).
In September 2015, the Brazilian Government announced its intended national determined contribution (NDC). The Brazilian NDC begins with the positive results already achieved by Brazil in reducing greenhouse effect gases, and establishes even more ambitions commitments. Brazil is adopting a target of reducing emissions in 37% by 2025, compared to the levels of 2005, and is suggesting that emissions may be reduced in up to 43% by 2030. The Brazilian contribution takes into consideration the imperative of sustainable development and includes adaptation actions, international cooperation opportunities and references to means of implementation, in addition to mitigation commitments
Brazil is one of the few developing countries to assume an absolute emissions reduction target, equally or more ambitious than those of developed countries. To subsidize the elaboration of the iNDC, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs conducted an extensive process of consultations with the civil society, the private sector and academia.